I-Wisepowder inebanga eligcwele lezinto zokusetshenziswa zesifo i-Alzheimer's, futhi inesistimu ephelele yokuphathwa kwekhwalithi.

Isifo Se-Alzheimer's

Isifo i-Alzheimer siyindlela eqhubekayo yokuwohloka komqondo. I-Dementia yigama elibanzi lezimo ezibangelwa ukulimala kwengqondo noma izifo ezithinta kabi inkumbulo, ukucabanga nokuziphatha. Lezi zinguquko ziphazamisa impilo yansuku zonke.
Ngokusho kwe-Alzheimer's Association, isifo i-Alzheimer sibalwa ngamaphesenti angama-60 kuya kwangama-80 wamacala okuwohloka komqondo. Abantu abaningi abanalesi sifo bathola ukuxilongwa ngemuva kweminyaka yobudala engama-65. Uma kutholakala ngaphambi kwalokho, kubhekiselwa kuso njengesifo sokuqala se-Alzheimer's.

Izimbangela Zokugula Kwe-Alzheimer

Izimbangela zesifo i-Alzheimer's aziwaziwa. I- "amyloid cascade hypothesis" eyi-hypothesis exoxwa kakhulu futhi ecwaningwe kakhulu ngembangela yesifo i-Alzheimer's. Imininingwane eqine ngokwedlulele esekela i-amyloid cascade hypothesis ivela ocwaningweni lwesifo i-Alzheimer's sokuqala (ukuqala kofuzo). Izinguquko ezihlobene nesifo i-Alzheimer's zitholakale cishe engxenyeni yeziguli ezinesifo sokuqala. Kuzo zonke lezi ziguli, ukuguqulwa kuguqula ukukhiqizwa okweqile ebuchosheni bohlobo oluthile lwesiqeshana samaprotheni esincane okuthiwa i-ABeta (Aβ). Ososayensi abaningi bakholelwa ukuthi ezimeni eziningi zezifo ze-Alzheimer's (isibonelo, ezingezona izakhi zofuzo) (lezi ezakha iningi lamacala esifo i-Alzheimer's) kuncane ukususwa kweprotheyini ye-Aβ kunokukhiqizwa okuningi. Kunoma ikuphi, ucwaningo oluningi ekutholeni izindlela zokuvimbela noma zokubambezela isifo se-Alzheimer selugxile ezindleleni zokwehlisa inani le-Aβ ebuchosheni.

Izimpawu ze-Alzheimer's

Wonke umuntu uneziqephu zokukhohlwa ngezikhathi ezithile. Kepha abantu abanesifo i-Alzheimer's babonisa imikhuba nezimpawu ezithile eziqhubekayo eziba zimbi ngokuhamba kwesikhathi. Lokhu kungafaka:
  • inkumbulo ethinta imisebenzi yansuku zonke, njengekhono lokugcina ama-aphoyintimenti
  • inkathazo ngemisebenzi ejwayelekile, njengokusebenzisa i-microwave
  • ubunzima bokuxazulula izinkinga
  • inkinga ngokukhuluma noma ukubhala
  • ukudideka ngezikhathi noma izindawo
  • kwehle ukwahlulela
  • ukuncipha kwenhlanzeko yomuntu siqu
  • ukuguquka kwemizwelo nobuntu
  • ukuhoxa kubangani, emndenini, nasemphakathini
Izimpawu zesifo i-Alzheimer zizoshintsha ngokuya ngesigaba sesifo.

Ukwelashwa kwe-Alzheimer's

Alikho ikhambi elaziwayo lesifo i-Alzheimer's, izindlela zokwelashwa ezitholakalayo zinikela ngenzuzo encane yezimpawu kepha zihlala zithambile emvelweni.
Ukwelashwa kwesifo i-Alzheimer kuqukethe imishanguzo esekelwe emithini futhi engeyona eyokwelapha. Izigaba ezimbili ezihlukene zokwenziwa kwemithi zivunyiwe yi-FDA yokwelapha isifo i-Alzheimer's: cholinesterase inhibitors kanye nabamelene ne-glutamate abayingxenye. Alikho ikilasi lezidakamizwa eliqinisekisiwe ukuthi lehlisa izinga lokuqhubekela phambili kwesifo i-Alzheimer's. Noma kunjalo, izivivinyo eziningi zemitholampilo ziphakamisa ukuthi le mithi iphakeme kune-placebos (amaphilisi kashukela) ekwehliseni ezinye izimpawu.
Ukwelashwa Okusekelwe Emithini
▪ I-Cholinesterase inhibitors (ama-ChEIs)
Ezigulini ezinesifo i-Alzheimer's kukhona ukushoda okulinganiselwe kwe-neurotransmitter yamakhemikhali obuchopho ebizwa nge-acetylcholine. Ucwaningo olubalulekile lukhombisile ukuthi i-acetylcholine ibalulekile ekwakhiweni kwezinkumbulo ezintsha. Ama-cholinesterase inhibitors (ama-ChEIs) avimba ukuwohloka kwe-acetylcholine. Ngenxa yalokhu, i-acetylcholine eningi iyatholakala ebuchosheni, futhi kungaba lula ukwakha izinkumbulo ezintsha.
Ama-ChEI amane avunyelwe yi-FDA, kepha kwenziwa kuphela i-pezil hydrochloride (Aricept), i-rivastigmine (i-Exelon), ne-galantamine (i-Razadyne - ngaphambili eyayibizwa nge-Reminyl) isetshenziswa odokotela abaningi ngoba umuthi wesine, i-tacrine (i-Cognex) unemiphumela engemihle kakhulu kunabanye abathathu. Ochwepheshe abaningi besifo i-Alzheimer abakholelwa ukuthi kunomehluko obalulekile ekusebenzeni kwale mithi emithathu. Ucwaningo oluningi lukhombisa ukuthi ukuqhubekela phambili kwezimpawu zeziguli kule mithi kubonakala ngathi kuyithafa izinyanga eziyisithupha kuya kweziyi-12, kepha ukuqhubeka okungenakugwenywa bese kuqala futhi.
Kuma-ChEIs amathathu asetshenziswa kabanzi, i-rivastigmine ne-galantamine kuvunywa kuphela yi-FDA yesifo i-Alzheimer's to mild to modze, kuyilapho i-donepezil igunyazelwa isifo i-Alzheimer's, esesilinganisweni nesinzima. Akwaziwa ukuthi i-rivastigmine ne-galantamine ziyasebenza yini nasezifweni ezinzima ze-Alzheimer's, yize kungabonakali kunesizathu esizwakalayo sokuthi kungani kungafanele.
Imiphumela emibi eyinhloko yama-CHEIs ibandakanya uhlelo lwesisu futhi ifaka isicanucanu, ukuhlanza, ukuqunjelwa, nohudo. Imvamisa le miphumela emibi ingalawulwa ngoshintsho ngosayizi noma isikhathi somthamo noma ukufaka imishanguzo ngokudla okuncane. Iningi leziguli lizobekezelela imithamo yokwelapha yama-ChEIs.
▪ Abamelene ngokweqile be-glutamate
I-Glutamate yi-neurotransmitter enkulu ejabulisayo ebuchosheni. Omunye umbono uphakamisa ukuthi i-glutamate eningi kakhulu ingaba yimbi ebuchosheni futhi idale ukuwohloka kwamangqamuzana ezinzwa. IMemantine (Namenda) isebenza ngokunciphisa kancane umphumela we-glutamate ukwenza amaseli ezinzwa asebenze. Ucwaningo lukhombisile ukuthi ezinye iziguli ezikwi-memantine zingazinakekela kangcono kuneziguli ezinamaphilisi kashukela (ama-placebos). I-Memantine ivunyelwe ukwelashwa kokuwohloka komqondo okulingene futhi okunzima, futhi izifundo azibonisanga ukuthi zisiza ekuwohlokeni komqondo okuncane. Kungenzeka futhi ukwelapha iziguli ezine-AchEs kanye ne-memantine ngaphandle kokulahleka kokusebenza kwemithi noma ukwanda kwemiphumela emibi.
Ngaphandle kwalokho, ucwaningo oluningi lukhombisa ukuthi i-J147, CAD-31, CMS 121, njll imishanguzo izosebenza kahle kwisifo se-Alzheimer kumamodeli wegundane okuguga okusheshisiwe. I-J147 yisidakamizwa sokuhlola esinemiphumela ebikiwe yokulwa nesifo i-Alzheimer's kanye nokuguga kumamodeli wegundane okuguga okusheshisiwe. Futhi umsebenzi we-neurogenic owenziwe ngcono ngaphezu kwe-J147 kumaseli wangaphambi kokungena komuntu we-neural unokuthola kwawo okubizwa nge-CAD-31.
Ukwelashwa okungeyona imithi
Ngaphezu kwemithi, ushintsho lwendlela yokuphila lungasiza isiguli sesifo se-alzheimer
ukuphatha isimo sabo, njengokufunda izincwadi (kodwa hhayi amaphephandaba), ukudlala imidlalo yebhodi, ukuqedela ama-crossword puzzle, ukudlala izinsimbi zomculo, noma ukuxhumana njalo kwezenhlalo kubonisa ingozi encishisiwe yesifo i-Alzheimer's.

Izikhombo:

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